§ 1926.1424 Work area control.
(a) Swing radius hazards.
(1) The requirements in paragraph (a)(2) of this section apply where there are accessible areas in which the equipment’s rotating superstructure (whether permanently or temporarily mounted) poses a reasonably foreseeable risk of:
(i) Striking and injuring an employee; or (ii) Pinching/crushing an employee against another part of the equipment or another object.
(2) To prevent employees from entering these hazard areas, the employer must:
(i) Train each employee assigned to work on or near the equipment (“authorized personnel”) in how to recognize struck-by and pinch/crush hazard areas posed by the rotating superstructure.
(ii) Erect and maintain control lines, warning lines, railings or similar barriers to mark the boundaries of the hazard areas. Exception: When the employer can demonstrate that it is neither feasible to erect such barriers on the ground nor on the equipment, the hazard areas must be clearly marked by a combination of warning signs (such as “Danger – Swing/Crush Zone”) and high visibility markings on the equipment that identify the hazard areas. In addition, the employer must train each employee to understand what these markings signify.
(3) Protecting employees in the hazard area.
(i) Before an employee goes to a location in the hazard area that is out of view of the operator, the employee (or someone instructed by the employee) must ensure that the operator is informed that he/she is going to that location.
(ii) Where the operator knows that an employee went to a location covered by paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the operator must not rotate the superstructure until the operator is informed in accordance with a prearranged system of communication that the employee is in a safe position.
(b) Where any part of a crane/derrick is within the working radius of another crane/derrick, the controlling entity must institute a system to coordinate operations. If there is no controlling entity, the employer (if there is only one employer operating the multiple pieces of equipment), or employers, must institute such a system.
§ 1926.1425 Keeping clear of the load.
(a) Where available, hoisting routes that minimize the exposure of employees to hoisted loads must be used, to the extent consistent with public safety.
(b) While the operator is not moving a suspended load, no employee must be within the fall zone, except for employees:
(1) Engaged in hooking, unhooking or guiding a load;
(2) Engaged in the initial attachment of the load to a component or structure; or
(3) Operating a concrete hopper or concrete bucket.
(c) When employees are engaged in hooking, unhooking, or guiding the load, or in the initial connection of a load to a component or structure and are within the fall zone, all of the following criteria must be met:
(1) The materials being hoisted must be rigged to prevent unintentional
(2) Hooks with self-closing latches or their equivalent must be used. Exception: “J” hooks are permitted to be used for setting wooden trusses.
(3) The materials must be rigged by a qualified rigger.
(d) Receiving a load. Only employees needed to receive a load are permitted to be within the fall zone when a load is being landed.
(e) During a tilt-up or tilt-down operation:
(1) No employee must be directly under the load.
(2) Only employees essential to the operation are permitted in the fall zone (but not directly under the load). An employee is essential to the operation if the employee is conducting one of the following operations and the employer can demonstrate it is infeasible for the employee to perform that operation from outside the fall zone: (1) physically guide the load; (2) closely monitor and give instructions regarding the load’s movement; or (3) either detach it from or initially attach it to another component or structure (such as, but not limited to, making an initial connection or installing bracing).
NOTE: Boom free fall is prohibited when an employee is in the fall zone of the boom or load, and load line free fall is prohibited when an employee is directly under the load; see § 1926.1426.